Eu Chip Act: How Moore’s Law has shaped the chip market
In 1965 Gordon Moore, one of the founders of Intel and head of the Research department, published the editorial of the company's R&D magazine: the piece "Cramming more electronic components into an integrated circuit"(1). Here he predicted (taking into account data from 1959) the rate of addition of transistors into an integrated circuit (ICs - Integrated Circuits). This prediction was christened 'Moore's Law'. The Intel research director stated that the number of transistors doubles every 24 months in a given area of the circuit. This is important to determine the number of parallel operations a given circuit can compute (the hardware determines how many calculations the circuit can handle at the same time).
What happens at the nanometer scale is exactly like a light switch that turns on and off: it allows or blocks the passage of an electrical pulse. A transistor consists of a source, a drain and a gate. This gate allows or prevents the passage of the signal. The distance between source and drain is what Moore takes into account to make his prediction (The distance is shortened every 24 months in his words).
This distance between Drain and Source today is around 5 nm (Apple M1 chip, Intel Quad-Core, etc). Which means that this distance consists of a few atoms between one part and the other (E.G. A Quad-Core contains 2 Billion transistors inside (2).